SABLE OFFSHORE ENERGY- Quality Assurance Cases

The Need to Teach Quality

It has been proven, repeatedly and convincingly, that an increase in quality, properly done, will increase efficiency, improve production, and increase profits. For example, by focusing on quality, Japanese auto manufacturers were able to produce a cheaper, better car in a fraction of the time it took a North American auto manufacturer. Many industries now require all their suppliers to have quality registration such as one of the ISO 9000 series. The ISO registration is now essential to virtually any company engaged in international trade.

Designing and implementing a quality management system can be very challenging for small businesses. Since Nova Scotia is comprised of mostly smaller businesses, the adoption of quality management principles by many companies has been slow to occur.

Part of the solution to this problem lies in improving the education of the general public and business people so that they understand the value added contribution of the quality field. In response to this need, Sable Offshore Energy Incorporated funded the Quality Assurance Project. The first objective of this project was to develop five cases that advance the agenda of quality assurance. Students in high schools, community colleges, and universities can use these cases. The second objective was to develop a series of university level interdisciplinary courses that will take a student from the entry level requirement of a basic statistics course to the ability to obtain qualification from the American Society of Quality.


Interdisciplinary Program on Quality Assurance
The objective of this component of the project is to develop a series of university level interdisciplinary courses that will develop a strong understanding of Quality Assurance and Quality Control principles and the issues surrounding the management of Quality. In addition, the program will help the student to develop a set of analytical and decision-making skills related to Quality.

The series of courses could be regarded as a minor in some universities.With needed surrounding courses (such as statistics and economics) this Interdisciplinary Program could be a major in many universities.

The Interdisciplinary Program is a series of university level courses that will lead a student towards an understanding and appreciation of Quality Assurance and Quality Control.The five cases are real-life business situations whereby students will be able to study quality assurance concepts and gain experience making managerial decisions.

Module F:
Quality Fundamentals
Module M1:
Quality Management Fundamentals
Module E1:
Quality Engineering Fundamentals
Module M2:
ISO 9000 Quality Systems
Module E2:
Statistical Quality Control I
Module M3:
Management Systems
Module E3:
Statistical Quality Control II
Module M4:
Quality System Assessment Methodologies
Module E4:
Process Measurement, Reliability and Maintainability
Module M5:
Quality Improvement
Module E5:
Quality Techniques
References

* Case Editors:  Dr. Stanislav Karapetrovic, University of Alberta
                               Dr. Scott Follows, Acadia University

QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS

Quality Basics
Quality Terminology 

  • Definitions (ISO 9000: 2000)
  • Tangibility
    • Perceptional Quality
    • Factual Quality
  • Binary View
    • Quality Characteristics (Virtues: Positive)
    • Freedom From Defects (Deficiencies: Negative)
  • Garvin's Dimensions
  • Quality and Variation
  • Totality of Quality
  • Quality Processes
    • Management
    • Assurance
    • Engineering
History of Quality 
  • Ancient Past (Until 1950s)
  • Recent Past (1950s - 1990s)
  • Present (2000s)
Benefits of Quality 
  • Individual and Organizational
  • Performance Excellence


Quality Concepts
Systems Approach 

  • System Fundamentals
  • Modeling of Systems
    • Objectives
    • Processes, Inputs, Outputs
    • Resources
  • Types of Systems
    • Open and Closed Systems
    • Interrelationship of Elements: Serial, Parallel, Feed (back and forward)
  • System Dynamics
  • Quality Systems
Process Quality 
  • Plan - Do -Check - Act (PDCA) Cycle
  • Juran's Quality Trilogy
    • Quality Planning
    • Quality Control
    • Quality Improvement (Breakthrough and Kaizen)
Output Quality 
  • Categories (Product, Service, Processed Materials, Software)
  • Inspected versus Built-In Quality
  • Quality Loop (Product / Service Life Cycle)
  • Quality of Design and Quality of Conformance
Customer Focus 
  • Customer - Driven Quality
    • Customer Needs, Requirements, Expectations and Specifications
    • Types of Customers
    • Customer Satisfaction (Kano Model and Measurement)
  • Customer- Supplier Duality
    • Internal and External Customers
    • Customer - Supplier Chain
Quality Principles 
  • Quality Management Principles (ISO 9000: 2000)
  • Core Values and Concepts (Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award)
  • Fundamental Concepts of Excellence (European Quality Award)
References for this module include: Besterfield et al. (1995), Besterfield (1998), Deming (1986), EFQM (1999), Evans (1996), Evans and Lindsay (1996), ISO DIS 9000 (2000), Juran and Gryna (1993), NIST (2000), Waks and Frank (1999), and Weinstein et al. (1998).

QUALITY MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Total Quality Management (TQM)
Definitions and Principles 

  • Definitions and Synonyms
  • Main Features
    • Customer-Focus
    • Employee-Focus
    • Leadership
    • Supplier Partnerships
    • Factual Decision Making
    • Performance Measurement
    • Continuous Quality Improvement
History 
Strategies for Implementation 
  • Guidelines
  • Quality Assurance, Quality Systems and TQM
Pioneers
W. Edwards Deming 
  • 14 Points
  • Theory of Profound Knowledge
    • System Appreciation
    • Variation Knowledge
    • Knowledge Theory
    • Psychology
    • 7 Deadly Diseases
Joseph Juran 
  • Quality Trilogy
  • Quality Function
  • 10 Steps to Quality Improvement
Philip Crosby 
  • Quality Program
  • "Quality is Free" Philosophy
  • Four Absolutes
Kaoru Ishikawa 
  • Quality Control Techniques
  • Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC)
Organization for Quality
Business Strategy 
  • Strategic Planning
    • Process
    • Tools
  • Visions, Objectives and Policies
    • Quality Strategy
    • Quality Policy and Objectives
Organizational Theory 
  • Basics
    • Hierarchy and Span of Control
    • Organizational Axioms
  • Organizational Structures for Quality
    • Line and Multi-line
    • Functional
    • Product
    • Divisional
    • Matrix
  • Modern Theories
    • Mintzberg
    • Situational
    • Large Number of Factors
Teamwork 
  • Quality Circles
  • Self-Managed Teams
  • Cross-Functional Teams
  • Concurrent Engineering
  • Team Processes
    • Building
    • Facilitation
    • Dynamics
Quality Culture 
  • Leadership
    • Definition
    • Characteristics
    • Styles
    • Skills
    • Management
  • Empowerment
    • Reasons and Benefits
    • Techniques
    • Employee Suggestion Systems
  • Commitment
Interpersonal Relationships
Individual Psychology 
  • Motivation
    • Theories (Maslow, Hertzberg, McGregor)
    • Intrinsic and Extrinsic
  • Reinforcement
    • Recognition
    • Rewards
  • Cognition
    • Awareness
    • Learning
Communication 
  • One and Two -Way Communication
  • Means of Communication
    • Enablers
    • Inhibitors
  • Improvement
Conflict 
  • Reasons
  • Resolutions
References for this module include: Besterfield et al. (1995), Crosby (1980), Deming 986), Goetsch and Davis (1997), EFQM (1999), Evans (1996), Evans and Lindsay(1996), Juran and Gryna (1993), Leavitt and Bahrami (1988), NIST (2000), Weinstein et al. (1998), and Willborn and Cheng (1994).

ISO 9000 QUALITY SYSTEMS

Fundamentals
Quality System 

  • Definition
  • Generic Model
  • Elements
    • Policy and Objectives
    • Processes
    • Resources
    • Interrelationships
  • Development
    • Planning
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Control
    • Maintenance
    • Improvement
Standards 
  • History
  • Standard Development
    • National
    • International
  • Principles
  • Core Standard (ISO 9001: 2000)
  • Supporting Standards
    • ISO 9000: 2000
    • ISO 9004: 2000
    • ISO 19011: 2001
    • ISO 10012: 2000
    • Guidelines
System Registration 
  • Definitions
    • Certification
    • Registration
    • Accreditation
  • Principles
  • Conformity Assessment
  • Parties
    • Registrar
    • Organization
  • Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • Process
Design (ISO 9001: 2000)
Quality System Model 
  • Objectives
    • Framework
    • Quality Policy
    • Quality Objectives
  • Processes Management
    • Objectives and Responsibility
    • Resources
    • Realization Processes
    • Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • Resources
  • Information
  • Human
  • Material
  • Infrastructure
Objectives and Responsibility Management 
  • Organization for Quality Management
    • Responsibilities and Authorities
    • Representative
    • Communication
  • Leadership
    • Management Commitment
    • Focus on Customers and Stakeholders
  • Planning, Controlling and Reviewing for Quality
    • Strategic Guidance
      • Quality Policy
      • Quality Objectives
    • Quality Plans
    • Management Review
Resource Management 
  • Information Generation and Use
    • Quality Documentation
      • Manual
      • Procedures
      • Plans
      • Instructions
    • Quality Records
  • Information Control
    • Documentation
    • Records
  • Human Resources
    • Roles, Responsibilities and Authorities
    • Training, Quality Awareness and Competence
  • Infrastructure
    • Facilities
    • Environment
Realization Processes Management 
  • Product Life-Cycle Management Principles
  • Customer Processes
    • Determination of Requirements
    • Review
    • Communication
    • Feedback
  • Design
    • Process: Inputs, Processes, Outputs
    • Control: Reviews, Validation, Verification
    • Changes
  • Purchasing
    • Acquisition of Resources
    • Information and Control
  • Production and Operation
    • Planning
    • Control
      • General Process Control
      • Inspection, Measuring and Testing Processes
      • Inspection, Measuring and Testing Equipment
      • Inspection, Measuring and Testing Status
      • Product Identification and Traceability
      • Customer-Supplied Product
      • Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery
Measurement, Analysis and Improvement 
  • Planning
  • Monitoring
    • System (Quality Audits)
    • Product (Conformance and Nonconformance)
    • Process (Corrective and Preventive Actions)
  • Analysis
    • Process
    • Methodology
    • Results
  • Improvement
    • Process
    • Methodology
    • Results
Development
Generic Guidelines for Implementation 
  • Project Management
  • Documentation Requirements
  • Supporting Processes and Resources
  • Implementation Approaches
Specific Guidelines for Implementation 
  • Manufacturing Organizations
    • Applications
    • Sector-Specific Guidelines
    • AS 9000
    • TL 9000
    • QS 9000
  • Service Organizations
  • Tertiary Organizations 
    • Health Care
    • Education
    • Non-Profit
  • Small Business
References for this module include: ISO DIS 9000 (2000), ISO DIS 9001 (2000), ISO DIS 9004 (2000), and Willborn and Cheng (1994). 

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Quality Management System
Maintenance 

  • Quality Audits
    • Internal
    • External
  • Management Reviews
  • Follow-Up and Business Planning
Improvement 
  • Enrichment
    • Total Quality Management
    • New Objectives
  • Enlargement
    • Inclusion of Other Management Systems
    • Inclusion of Other Elements
Environmental Management System
Fundamentals 
  • Environment
  • Definitions
    • Policy, Objectives and Targets
    • Impacts
    • Aspects
  • Principles
ISO 14001 Model 
  • Objectives
    • Framework
    • Environmental Policy, Objectives and Targets
    • Environmental Aspects and Impacts
    • Environmental Management Program
    • Management Review
  • Processes Management
    • Communication
    • Operational Control
    • Emergency Preparedness and Response
    • Monitoring, Measurement and Audit
    • Corrective and Preventive Actions
  • Resources
    • Information
    • Human
    • Material
    • Infrastructure
Environmental Performance Evaluation 
  • Indicators
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
Environmental Performance Improvement 

Related Management Systems
Occupational Health 

  • Planning
  • Control
  • Maintenance
  • Improvement
Safety 
  • Planning
  • Control
  • Maintenance
  • Improvement
Risk 
  • Planning
  • Control
  • Maintenance
  • Improvement
Management System Integration
System Approach 
  • System Dynamics
    • Principles
    • Modeling
    • Analysis
  • Learning Organizations
    • Principles
    • Analysis
Standards Alignment and Integration 
  • Constituting Standards
    • ISO 9001
    • ISO 14001
    • BS 8800
  • Modular Approach
System Alignment and Integration 
  • Elements Alignment and Integration
    • Objectives
    • Processes
    • Resources
  • Discipline-Specific Concepts Alignment
  • Structure Alignment and Integration
  • Synergy Effects
References for this module include: ISO DIS 9000 (2000), ISO DIS 9001 (2000), ISO DIS 9004 (2000), ISO 14001 (1996), Karapetrovic and Willborn (1998A, B, D), Senge (1990) and Willborn and Cheng (1994).

QUALITY SYSTEM ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES

Audit Fundamentals
Audit Definitions and Concepts 

  • Definition of Audit and Quality Audit
  • History of Audit
  • Audit Levels
    • Individual Audit
    • Audit Program
    • Audit System
  • Audit Objectives
    • Purpose
    • Scope
    • Feasibility
  • Audit Resources
    • Criteria
    • Evidence
    • Observations
    • Findings
    • Conclusions
    • Audit Parties
      • Auditor and Audit Team
      • Auditee
      • Client
      • Interfaces, Roles and Responsibilities of Audit Parties
  • Audit Principles and Practices
    • Generic Principles of Auditing
    • Generic Audit Practice
    • Examination of Compliance, Suitability and Effectiveness
Types of Audits 
  • First, Second and Third Party Audits
  • System, Process, Product, Service, Location and Organizational Audits
  • Baseline (Gap-Analysis) and Regular Audits
  • Management System Audits (Quality, Environmental, Health and Safety, Financial)
Audit Guidelines 
  • Evolution of Auditing Guidelines and Standards
  • CAN / CSA Q395 (1981) Quality Audits Standard
  • ANSI / ASQC Q1 (1986) Generic Guidelines for Auditing of Quality Systems
  • ISO 10011 (1991) Guidelines for Auditing Quality Systems
  • ISO 19011 (2001) Guidelines on Quality and Environmental Auditing
Audit Process
Initiation 
  • Determination of Objectives, Purpose, Scope, Criteria, Frequency and Feasibility
  • Identification of Audit Resources
Planning 
  • Audit Plan
  • Working Documents
  • Assessment of Quality System Documentation (Desk-Audit)
Execution 
  • Opening Meeting
  • Collection and Analysis of Information / Evidence
    • Observation Methods
    • Interviewing Methods
    • Examination Methods
    • Sampling Methods and Analysis
      • Audit Risk
      • Audit Materiality
      • Sampling [Random (Number, Stratified, Cluster, System) and Judgment]
  • Analysis of Results
    • Evidence
    • Criteria
    • Findings
  • Closing Meeting
Reporting 
Follow-up 
Corrective and Preventive Actions 

Audit Program / System Management
Audit Program 

  • Planning
  • Implementation
  • Review and Improvement
Audit System 
  • Joint, Simultaneous, Aligned and Integrated Audits
  • Managing an Audit System
Audit Quality Assurance 
Qualification and Competence of Auditors 

Self-Assessment
Definition and Principles 
Process 
Methodologies 

  • Types and Criteria
  • European Quality Award
  • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
  • ISO 9004: 2000


References for this module include: EFQM (1999), Hill et al. (1962), ISO DIS 9004 (2000), ISO CD1 19011 (1999), Karapetrovic and Willborn (1998C), NIST (2000), and Willborn and Cheng (1994).

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Guidelines
ISO 9004: 2000 

  • Model
    • Leadership
    • Process Management
    • Resources Management
    • Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • Applications
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) 
  • Model
    • Systems Approach
    • Leadership Triad: Leadership, Planning, Customer and Market Focus
    • Results Triad: Human Resources, Processes, Business
    • Information and Analysis
  • Applications
European Quality Award (EQA) 
  • Model
    • Excellence and RADAR process
    • Enablers: Leadership, People, Policy and Strategy, Partnerships and Resources
    • Results: People, Customer, Society, Performance
    • Applications
Deming Prize 
  • Model
    • Ten-Element Checklist
    • Interpretation
  • Applications
TQM Based on Guidelines 

Six Sigma
Fundamentals 

  • Definition and Concepts
  • Philosophy
    • Operational
    • Business
  • Relationships
    • Product Quality
    • Process Capability
    • Cost Benefits
Implementation 
  • Performance Measurement and Improvement
  • Six Sigma System
    • Objective Setting
    • Improvement Processes (Measurement, Analysis, Control, Improvement)
    • Resources (Training, Technology)
  • Applications
References for this module include: Besterfield et al. (1995), Blakeslee (1999), EFQM 999), ISO DIS 9004 (2000), Maguire (1999), NIST (2000), and Web Sites (2000).

QUALITY ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS

Statistics Fundamentals
Data and Information 

  • Quantitative and Qualitative Variables
  • Universe, Population and Sample (Statistics and Parameters)
  • Collecting and Describing Data
  • Charts, Graphs and Frequency Distributions
Measures 
  • Central Tendency
    • Mean and Average
    • Median
    • Mode
    • Relationships Among Measures
  • Dispersion
    • Range
    • Standard Deviation
    • Variance
    • Relationships Among Measures
  • Relative Position
    • Percentile
    • Quartile
    • Decile
    • Skewness
Probability Fundamentals
Definition and Properties 
  • Probability Theorems
  • Random Sampling
  • Probability Plots
  • Discrete and Continuous Random Variables
  • Bayes Theorem
Discrete Distributions 
  • Binomial
  • Poisson
  • Hypergeometric
Continuous Distributions 
  • Normal
    • Parameters
    • Standardized distribution
  • Exponential
Approximations 
  • Normal for Binomial
  • Binomial, Poisson and Normal for Hypergeometric
  • Poisson for Binomial
Sampling Distributions 
  • Mean and Variance
  • Theorems
    • Law of Large Numbers
    • Chebishev's Theorem
    • Central Limit Theorem
  • Distributions
    • Normal
    • Chi-Square (c2)
    • Student's (t)
    • Fisher's (F)
Estimators 
  • Point
  • Confidence Intervals
    • Mean When Variance Known
    • Mean When Variance Unknown
Hypothesis Testing Fundamentals
Basics 
  • H0 and H1 Hypotheses
  • p Value
  • Risks and Errors
    • Producer's Risk (a, Type I Error)
    • Consumer's Risk (b, Type II Error)
  • Process
    • Choice of Statistics
    • Establishment of the Decision Criterion
    • Calculations and Decision
Tests of Means 
  • Left, Right and Two Tailed Tests
  • m = m0
  • m1 = m2
Tests on Proportions 
  • p = p0
  • p1 = p2
Tests on Variances 
  • s = s0
  • s1 = s2
Test Strengths and Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves 

Experimental Design Fundamentals

  • Linear Correlation and Regression
  • Causal Relationships
  • Graphical Representation
  • Least Squares Method
  • Variance and Covariance
  • Correlation Coefficient
Design of Experiments 
  • Terminology
  • Process
  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
References for this module include: Besterfield (1998), Grant and Leavenworth (1988), Mendenhall (1993 and 1983), and Montgomery (1997 A, B). 

STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL I

Methodology
Variation and Monitoring 

  • Chance and Special Causes
  • Process Monitoring
    • Online and Offline Monitoring
    • Quality Characteristic Monitoring
  • Systems Perspective
    • Feedback System
    • PDCA Cycle on Causes of Variation
Shewhart Control Chart 
  • Central Line and 3s Control Limits
  • Variables and Attributes Control Charts
  • Rational Sampling
    • Sample Size
    • Sample Frequency
    • Average Run Length (ARL)
    • Variation Between Samples and Within a Sample
  • Control Charting Phases
    • Phase I: Establishing Initial Limits
    • Phase II: Statistical Process Control
  • Interpretation of Results
    • Rules for Detecting Special Causes
    • Implementation of Rules (In and Out of Control)
Process Capability 
  • Capability Indices
  • Tolerance Design
Implementation of Statistical Quality Control 
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Service Industries
Control Charts for Variables
Xbar-R Chart 
  • Averages and Ranges
  • Control Limits and Constants (A2, D3, D4, d2, d3)
  • Specification Limits and Relationships
  • Variable Sample Sizes
  • Interpretations
Xbar - s Chart 
  • Scope of Use
  • Control Limits and Constants (B5, B6, c4, B4, B3, A3)
  • Variable Sample Sizes
  • Interpretations
Other Charts 
  • Individual (I) Chart
  • Sum Chart
  • Individual - Moving Range (MR) Chart
  • Moving Average (MA) Chart
  • MA-MR Chart
  • Trend Charts
Control Charts for Attributes
Proportion Defective (p) Chart 
  • Constant and Variable Sample Size
  • Interpretations
Defect Count Charts 
  • Constant (c) and Variable (u) Sample Size
  • Interpretations
Control Charts for Different Purposes 
Short - Run Charts 
  • Specification Chart
  • Deviation From Nominal (DNOM) Chart
  • Standardized Xbar-R Chart (Hillier)
  • Zbar - W Chart
  • Z - MW Chart
  • Q Chart (Quesenberry)
  • Pre-Control
Small - Shift Charts 
  • CUSUM Chart
  • EWMA Chart
Multivariate Charts 
  • Hotelling T2 Chart
  • c2 Chart
References for this module include: Besterfield (1998), Grant and Leavenworth (1988) and Montgomery (1997B).

STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL II

Seven Quality Control Tools
Problem Solving

  • Methodology
  • Root Cause Analysis
Tools 
  • Checksheet
  • Histogram
  • Pareto Diagram
  • Scatter Diagram
  • Run Chart
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagram
  • Flowchart
Quality Improvement 
  • Storyboard
  • Implementation Methodology
    • Manufacturing
    • Service
    • Individual
Acceptance Sampling
Fundamentals 
  • Sampling for Acceptance
    • Production
    • Purchasing
  • Terminology
    • Lot
    • Sample
    • Sampling Plan
    • Symbols
    • AOQ and AOL
  • Design
    • Lot
    • Sample
  • Plans
    • Single
    • Double
    • Multiple
  • OC Curve
Acceptance Sampling Plans 
  • MIL STD 105 (ISO 2859)
  • Dodge-Romig
  • Sequential
  • Skip-Lot
  • Continuous
Design of Experiments
Experiments With One Factor 
  • General Model
  • ANOVA
  • Orthogonal Arrays
  • Fixed, Random and Combined Levels
Experiments With Two Factors 
  • General Model
  • ANOVA
  • Latin Squares
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Factors
Experiments With Two Levels 
  • Full Factorial
  • Fractional Factorial
Taguchi's Design 
  • Loss Function
  • Parameter Design
  • Experimental Plans
References for this module include: Besterfield (1998), Grant and Leavenworth (1988) and Montgomery (1997 A, B). 

PROCESS MEASUREMENT, RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY

Process Measurement
Fundamentals 

  • Measurement
    • Definitions and Concepts
    • Accuracy and Precision
    • Reference Points
  • Errors Modeling
    • Classification
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
Inspection, Measurement and Testing Resources 
  • Equipment
    • Gage Repeatability, Reproducibility and Capability
    • Calibration
  • Process
    • Destructive Testing
    • Nondestructive Testing
Failure Analysis
Fundamentals 
  • Reliability Function
  • Failure Probability
  • Hazard Rate
  • Failure Patterns
  • Measures
Failure Models 
  • Exponential
  • Normal
  • Lognormal
  • Weibull
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 
  • Purpose and Scope
  • Symbols and Logic
  • Process
    • Analysis
    • Records
  • Applications
Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 
  • Purpose and Scope
  • Failure Model
    • Functions
    • Failure Modes
    • Failure Consequences
    • Criticality Estimation
  • Process
    • Analysis
    • Records
  • Applications
System Reliability 
  • Serial
  • Parallel
  • Redundancy
  • Combination
Poka-Yoke (Fail-Safe) Systems 
  • Principles
  • Applications
Maintainability Analysis
Fundamentals 
  • Definitions
  • Measures
  • Availability
  • System Effectiveness
Modeling 
  • Distributions
  • Repair and Replacement Policies
  • Tradeoffs
Maintenance Strategies 
  • Corrective
  • Use-Based
  • Condition Monitoring
  • Proactive
  • Design-Out
References for this module include: Besterfield (1998), Ebeling (1997), Evans and Lindsay (1996), Montgomery (1997A, B), and Web Sites (2000).

QUALITY TECHNIQUES

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Purpose and Scope 

  • Definition
  • Inputs
  • Process
    • Product Design
    • Product Quality Planning
    • Process Design
    • Process Quality Planning
  • Outputs
House of Quality 
  • Development
    • With Roof
    • Without Roof
  • Applications
Seven Management and Planning Tools
Problem Solving 
  • Methodology
  • Continuous Improvement
Tools 
  • Activity Network Diagram
  • Affinity Diagram
  • Matrix Data Analysis Diagram
  • Prioritization Matrix
  • Process Decision Program Chart
  • Relationship Diagram
  • Tree Diagram
Implementation 

Economics of Quality
Nonconformance Costs 

  • Categories
    • External Failure
    • Internal Failure
    • Appraisal
    • Prevention
  • Management
    • Modeling
    • Measurement
    • Documentation
    • Reduction
    • Auditing
Quality Revenue 

Decision Analysis
Basics 

  • Decision Model
    • Criteria
    • Alternatives
    • Uncertainty
    • Hierarchy
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Outcomes
Monetary Values and Utilities 
  • Monetary Value
    • Decision Models
    • EMV
  • Utility Theory
    • Fundamentals
    • Risk Assessment
Decision Trees 
  • Symbols
  • Constructing
    • Forward Pass
    • Backward Pass
  • Outcomes
  • Risk Profiles
Multiattribute Decision Making 

Benchmarking
Purpose and Scope 
Process 
Results 
Continuous Improvement 
Applications 

References for this module include: Besterfield (1998), Besterfield et al. (1995), Clemen (1996), and Web Sites (2000).

REFERENCES

Besterfield, D.H., Besterfield-Michna, C., Besterfield, G.H., Besterfield-Sacre, M. (1995), Total Quality Management, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 

Besterfield, D.H. (1998), Quality Control, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 5th edition 

Blakeslee, J.A. (1999), "Implementing the Six Sigma Solution", Quality Progress, Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 77-85 

Clemen, R.T. (1996), Making Hard Decisions: An Introduction to Decision Analysis, Duxbury Press, Belmont, California, 2nd edition 

Crosby, P.B. (1980), Quality is Free, Mentor - Penguin Books, New York 

Deming, W.E. (1986), Out of the Crisis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Ebeling, C.E. (1997), An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York 

Goetsch, D.L., Davis, S.B., (1997), Introduction to Total Quality, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2nd edition 

EFQM (1999), The EFQM Excellence Model, European Foundation for Quality Management, Brussels, Belgium 

Evans, J.R. (1996), "What Should Higher Education Be Teaching About Quality?", Quality Progress, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 83 

Evans, J.R., Lindsay, W.M. (1996), The Management and Control of Quality, West Publishing Company, New York, 3rd edition 

Grant, E.L., Leavenworth, R.S. (1988), Statistical Quality Control, McGraw Hill, New York, 6th edition 

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